These letters were mapped to digits, which was indicated visibly on a dial telephone.
Several systematic telephone numbering plans existed in various communities, typically evolving over time as the subscriber base outgrew older numbering schemes. A widely used numbering plan was a system of using two letters from the central office name with four or five digits, which was designated as 2L-4N or 2L-5N , or simply 2—4 and 2—5 , respectively, but some large cities initially selected plans with three letters 3L-4N. In , W. Telephone directories or other telephone number displays, such as in advertising, typically listed the telephone number showing the significant letters of the central office name in bold capital letters, followed by the digits that identified the subscriber line.
On the number card of the telephone instrument, the name was typically shown in full, but only the significant letters to be dialed were capitalized, while the rest of the name was shown in lower case. Telephone exchange names were used in many countries, but were phased out for numeric systems by the s. In the United States, the demand for telephone service outpaced the scalability of the alphanumeric system and after introduction of area codes for direct-distance dialing, all-number calling became necessary.
Similar developments followed around the world, such as the British all-figure dialling. In the United States, the most-populous cities, such as New York City , Philadelphia , Boston , and Chicago initially implemented dial service with telephone numbers consisting of three letters and four digits 3L-4N according to a system developed by W. Most other major Canadian and US cities, such as Toronto and Atlanta, were converted from manual exchanges using four digits to a local 2L-4N numbering plan. Eventually, starting in the late s, all local numbering plans were changed to the 2L-5N system to prepare for nationwide Direct Distance Dialing.
For example, under this system, a well-known number in New York City was listed as PEnnsylvania In small towns with a single central office, local calls typically required dialing only four or five-digits at most, without using named exchanges. A toll call required the assistance of an operator, who asked for the name of the town and the local station number.
Some independent telephone companies, not part of the Bell System , also did not implement central office names. In , newly developed panel switching systems were tested in the Mulberry and Waverly exchanges in Newark, New Jersey. When the technology first appeared in the Mulberry exchange, subscribers had no dials on their telephones and the new system was transparent to them — they asked an operator to ring their called party as usual.
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However, the operator keyed the number into the panel equipment, instead of making cord connections manually. By the s twenty cities were served by this type of office. From the time of these first conversions to automated equipment in the s, through the conversions of most manual equipment by the s, it was necessary for telephone numbers to be represented uniformly across the nation. By Bell System policy, customers never needed to be concerned about whether they were calling an automatic or a manual exchange.
The 2L-5N system became the North American standard, as customer-dialed long distance service came into use in the s. Several standard formats of telephone numbers, based on central office names, capitalized the leading letters that were dialed, for example:. In print, such as on business cards or in advertisements, the full central office name was often shown only by the two letters:. If the central office was known by a name, but no letters were dialed, it was common to capitalize only the first letter of the central office, e.
Such numbers were assigned typically in manual offices, and the name would be spoken by a subscriber when requesting a destination. Often these were geographically significant names, such as the town's name. In large cities with coexisting manual and dial areas, the numbering was generally standardized to one format. For example, when the last manual exchange in San Francisco was converted to dial in , the numbers had for several years been in the format of JUniper JUniper 4 was automatic, but JUniper 6 was manual.
To call JUniper 6 from JUniper 4, the subscriber dialed the number and it was displayed to the B-board operator at JUniper 6, and that operator would complete the connection manually. In the other direction, to call JUniper 4 from JUniper 6, the subscriber would lift the receiver and speak to the JUniper 4 operator who would in turn dial the JUniper 6 number. During the s, cities using six-digit numbers converted to seven-digit dialing. Typically, several six-digit 2L-4N exchanges were co-located in one building already, with new ones added as old ones had filled up. After the conversion, they were combined into a new 2L-5N exchange.
Usually customers would keep the same station numbers. Beugrbt, H.
United States Obituary Notice | 12222 July
HILL b. Catherine L. Margaret Frances William was born Updated information. They retired to Vero Beach, Florida. Edward J. They have one living child and several grandchildren. I have copies of their obituaries. Florida State Hospital on January 20, and he died on July 24, His last known address was Vero Beach, FL with no known street address. We are of African American heritage. It seems as if he l Island NY. He married Marie Penfield-Lane who had two children from a previous marriage. They retired in Vero Beach FL where the are buried.
He sent me his family tree and there is a notation on it that particularly interests me and I would like to follow up. Thanks for sharing these photos.
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